"An astonishing journey through time and space." -- Julie Holland, MD
"The most important, provocative, and challenging book I've read in a long time." -- Laurence Bergreen
From a psychiatrist on the frontlines of addiction medicine and an expert on the history of drug use, comes the "authoritative, engaging, and accessible" (Booklist) history of the flower that helped to build -- and now threatens -- modern society.
Opioid addiction is fast becoming the most deadly crisis in American history. In 2018, it claimed nearly fifty thousand lives -- more than gunshots and car crashes combined, and almost as many Americans as were killed in the entire Vietnam War. But even as the overdose crisis ravages our nation -- straining our prison system, dividing families, and defying virtually every legislative solution to treat it -- few understand how it came to be.
Opium tells the "fascinating" (Lit Hub) and at times harrowing tale of how we arrived at today's crisis, "mak[ing] timely and startling connections among painkillers, politics, finance, and society" (Laurence Bergreen). The story begins with the discovery of poppy artifacts in ancient Mesopotamia, and goes on to explore how Greek physicians and obscure chemists discovered opium's effects and refined its power, how colonial empires marketed it around the world, and eventually how international drug companies developed a range of powerful synthetic opioids that led to an epidemic of addiction.
Throughout, Dr. John Halpern and David Blistein reveal the fascinating role that opium has played in building our modern world, from trade networks to medical protocols to drug enforcement policies. Most importantly, they disentangle how crucial misjudgments, patterns of greed, and racial stereotypes served to transform one of nature's most effective painkillers into a source of unspeakable pain -- and how, using the insights of history, state-of-the-art science, and a compassionate approach to the illness of addiction, we can overcome today's overdose epidemic.
This urgent and masterfully woven narrative tells an epic story of how one beautiful flower became the fascination of leaders, tycoons, and nations through the centuries and in their hands exposed the fragility of our civilization.
About the Author
John H. Halpern, MD, a psychiatrist in private practice, previously served as medical director of the Boston Center for Addiction Treatment, the largest substance-use disorder hospital in New England. He completed his residency and a fellowship in addiction research at Harvard Medical School programs. He spent over 20 years on the faculty of Harvard Medical School and during his professorship served as the director of his own research laboratory at McLean Hospital, supported by private grants and National Institute on Drug Abuse funding.
David Blistein wrote the award-winning PBS documentary The Mayo Clinic: Faith - Hope - Science and is currently writing a film about Henry David Thoreau as well as a comprehensive three-part series on brain disorders and mental health. He also co-wrote Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies and The Gene for PBS and is the author of David's Inferno, a book that combines personal anecdotes with insights into manic-depression and descriptions of how it is diagnosed and treated.
"Wealthy patrons of the arts making fortunes off opioids?
Blaming immigrants for a domestic drug crisis? Race-based enforcement?...It was as true in the 19th
and 20th centuries as it is today. Opium insists that we take an unstinting
look at the relationship between people and opioids and dares us to make the
hard decisions necessary to deal with the crisis. This book is what history is supposed
to be."—Ken Burns, filmmaker
"In this landmark project, John Halpern, MD, and David Blistein have
for the first time combined a comprehensive history of opium with a clear-eyed
look at today's opioid crisis. By unpacking the complex story of how this
powerful drug has woven its way through human history and cultures, they give
readers profound insight into what drives contemporary use of opium and its
derivatives as well as realistic, effective, and compassionate recommendations
for helping those who suffer from the disease of addiction."—Dr. Andrew Weil (MD)
"An engrossing and
highly readable account of our tangled relationship with a flower."—Sam Quinones, author of Dreamland: The True Tale of America's Opiate Epidemic
"A fascinating account from a psychiatrist who is also an
expert in addiction medicine."—Lit Hub
Blistein take us on an astonishing journey through time and space, revealing
how racism and ethnic prejudice have distorted popular views of opium for
centuries and how those who were at one time said to be paragons of American
virtue-from Harry Anslinger to Joseph McCarthy to the Sackler family -- have
played their part in creating the opiate epidemic. With Opium, we can
more fully understand how and why the 'war on drugs' keeps failing. A
fascinating read with practical advice on how to get out of the mess we're in."—Julie Holland, MD, New York Times bestselling author of Weekends at Bellevue and Moody Bitches
"Opium is the most important,
provocative, and challenging book I've read in a long time....Makes timely and
startling connections among painkillers, politics, finance, and society in
clear, non-technical prose that kept me alternately riveted and amazed. We may
not be able to get this drug out of our system, but Opium will help everyone gain a better understanding of and more control
over its uses and abuses."—Laurence Bergreen, New York Times bestselling author of Marco Polo: From Venice to Xanadu and Over the Edge of the World: Magellan's Terrifying Circumnavigation of the Globe
"Authoritative, engaging, and accessible, this call for action offers
solutions -- insurance and criminal justice reforms, alternative
treatments, and eradication of punishment -- and avenues to greater overall understanding."—Booklist
"Detailed and highly readable...[Opium] demonstrates convincingly that
the best way to address today's epidemic is to acknowledge addiction as the
brain disease that it is...The recommendations in this book should be seriously
considered by anyone concerned with today's opioid epidemic."—Congressman Patrick J. Kennedy, member of the President's Commission on Combatting Drug Addiction and the Opioid Crisis
"Highly informed and
wonderfully entertaining."—Ethan A. Nadelmann, founder of the Drug Policy Alliance
and Blistein expertly weave together the many strands of opium's history, from
the poppy growers of Neolithic times to the politics of today's opiate
epidemic. By learning the whole story and discovering the many erroneous
beliefs and misguided policies that have occurred along the way -- the reader
emerges with a far clearer picture of the problem and what perhaps we can do
about it now."—Harrison G. Pope Jr., MD, professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School
this lively, irreverent history we learn what Aristotle and William Burroughs,
Helen of Troy and Billie Holiday, El Chapo and Thomas Jefferson had in common.
They all either used or prescribed, cultivated or profited from opium. The authors
chronicle the quackery the drug has inspired, the colonial wars it caused, and
the official follies that led to today's opioid crisis -- and they outline a
fresh and sensible approach to ending it."—Geoffrey C. Ward, New York Times bestselling author of A First-Class Temperament: The Emergence of Franklin Roosevelt
"Thank God (or whatever higher power you desire)
that Halpern and Blistein have done the historical work to demystify the use of
opioids. Their research now allows us to focus on the issues that really matter,
like keeping users safe and ensuring that patients have access to these effective
medications."—Carl L. Hart, Ph.D., professor of Psychology, Columbia University and author of High Price
book takes the reader on a deep journey through the history of opium and how it
has shaped medicine, culture, trade, and politics....Halpern and Blistein give
readers hope that new policies and treatments to alleviate addiction could make
a real difference, if politicians and healthcare institutions are willing to
set aside failed strategies that, unfortunately, remain in place."—Torsten Passie, MD, Goethe-University's Institute for History and Ethics in Medicine